Ancient Beauty Secrets of Pearl (10 Anti-Ageing Benefits)

Posted by Daniel Whitechurch on

Ancient Beauty Secrets of Pearl (10 Anti-Ageing Benefits)

For thousands of years, Pearl (margarita) has been a highly revered substance by many ancient cultures as a superb longevity food, possessing the power to increase life span, overall wellness, happiness and quality of life.

Not only that, Pearl powder offers a wide range of benefits for human health like no other superfood on the planet.

Pearl has a long history that spans more than 4000 years. It is a treasure that was used by the ancient Egyptians, Chinese, Mayans and Ayurvedic practitioners of India. The benefits of Pearl were well known by nearly every civilisation.

As a Shen tonic, Pearl is one of the best with its proven ability to soothe and calm the nervous system, lower stress levels, promote relaxation and improve sleep.

According to Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM), Pearl is a heart and liver tonic. It is said to relieve a heavy heart by helping release and let go of old toxic energy and baggage. It soothes and cools “toxic heat” in the liver which results in brighter eyes, clearer skin and complexion, and an improved circulatory system that can feed the skin.

Pearl is one of the greatest ancient beauty secrets for promoting both inner and outer radiant health. It was highly sought after by the emperors and empresses, and most beautiful women of the Orient since at least 320 AD.

In the West, Pearls are typically associated with prized jewellery or gemstones but never considered as a potent nutritive food. However, Pearls can also be ground down into a fine powder for internal and topical use.

Traditionally, throughout the Orient, Pearl powder was used topically in face masks and also internally to nourish and enrich the skin, build strong bones and organs, promote calmness, increase longevity and even intelligence.

Pearl contains a broad range of rich bioavailable nutrition that provides immense powers to renew, regenerate, and restore human health. Best of all, much of its benefits have been validated by scientific research.

Pearl Powder is Rich in Healthy Nutrition

Pearl is a powerhouse of nutritious health-boosting compounds.

Pearl is extremely rich in beauty minerals. It's mostly made of calcium carbonate and magnesium carbonate (91%), and silica, calcium phosphate, aluminium oxide and ferric oxide as well as some trace elements such as sodium, magnesium, manganese, selenium, aluminium, and copper.

Pearl is highly compatible with the human body. In 2004, researchers discovered that the way Pearl is created is very similar to the part of our DNA that regulates calcium metabolism. (1, 2)

This means that the wide variety of nutrients in Pearl can be easily absorbed and utilised by the body, particularly calcium, providing a broad range of health benefits, and best of all, increased longevity and healthy glowing skin.

Pearl contains highly bioavailable forms of calcium that has a direct effect on the health of the skin, bones, and liver.

Unlike most dietary supplements which are made of “positively charged” calcium that can cause inflammation and calcification, isn't absorbed by the bones. But “negatively charged” calcium found in Pearl and other green leafy vegetables is 100% natural, bioavailable, and can be easily absorbed and put to good use in the body. (3)

Pearl powder is also a complete protein. In addition to all eight essential amino acids, it has many more including aspartic acid, threonine, serine, alanine, phenylalanine, arginine, methionine, lysine, glutamic acid, glycine, leucine, valine, proline, tyrosine, cysteine, histidine, and the calming and relaxing taurine. (4)

Pearl powder is also packed with other beneficial compounds which are only just beginning to be understood and investigated scientifically.

These include porphyrin, the blue pigments in some Pearl, mucopolysaccharides which show anti-inflammatory properties, increase libido and sexual potency, and help skin maintain its tone, elasticity and can prevent wrinkles when consumed or used topically.

And alkaline phosphatase, which is likely one of the active components involved in biomineralization processes and the reason for Pearl’s high bioavailability of calcium and its other precious nutrients. (5, 6)

Pearl Powder is Anti-ageing Increase Longevity and Lifespan Quality of Life

Pearl Powder Increases Longevity

For thousands of years, Pearl has been treasured in China as a superb longevity superfood for its ability to support and improve the function of vital organs, prolong life span, and enhance the quality of life.

The reason ageing occurs in humans is that our cells are no longer able to regenerate themselves. With the wear and tear of life, cells will slowly degenerate (or quickly, depending on your lifestyle habits) to the point where they incur permanent damage that inevitably affects their ability to function at their best, then eventually, they die.

Traditional wisdom and scientific research are proving that Pearl powder may have definitive anti-ageing properties. (7)

Pearl contains unique anti-ageing substances known as Pearl signal proteins. These complex signalling proteins including–conchioline, nacrein, mucoperlin, lustrin, and perlucin–work by acting as messengers in the body to create fresh, new cells.

Pearl signal proteins help the body renew, regenerate, and restore itself efficiently and fast.

Pearl signal proteins stimulate new skin cell regeneration to help maintain healthy youthful looking skin. They stimulate organ and muscle cell regeneration to keep the vital organs strong and promote faster muscle recovery. By stimulating bone cell regeneration, they help grow stronger bones and keep existing bone healthy.

Other components of Pearl also assist with DNA and RNA metabolic activities that promote and accelerate cell healing and renewal.

The vast nutrient profile of Pearl maintains a crystalline structure that can better enhance the communication between cells. Cellular communication is extremely important for the normal functioning of the body, for its ability to repair itself, respond to inflammation, prevent cellular mutation, and prevent ageing and disease. By enhancing cellular communication, Pearl can help optimise bodily functions and promote longevity.

Pearl Boosts Antioxidants Enzymes for a Long Life SOD Superoxide dismutase Glutathione

Pearl Powder Boosts Antioxidants for a Long Life

Pearl shows an incredible capacity to boost many important antioxidants in the body including SOD and glutathione–two potent antioxidants that have shown to have a strong connection to overall health and wellness and longevity, particularly SOD.

Superoxide dismutase (SOD) is so important for health and longevity that its manufacture is ensured by the body by being encoded into our DNA. SOD catalyses the dismutation reaction and without it, our body would be damaged by rampant superoxide free radicals. The higher levels of SOD in your system, the healthier you are.

Many scientists consider SOD to be the most important antioxidant directly linked to longevity, alongside Glutathione and Catalase.

Pearl stimulates the production of SOD and also reduces peroxidation, one of the major ageing processes of the body. This study highlighted the antioxidant boosting and anti-aging properties of Pearl–"Pearl powder administration showed a substantial increase in total antioxidant capacity, total thiols, Glutathione content, enzymic antioxidant activity as well as considerably suppressed the lipid peroxidation products.” (8)

Various studies have shown that fortifying the diets of mice, fruit flies, and silkworms (moth), with Pearl powder, significantly increased their lifespan by up to 57 per cent! (9, 10)

Scientists also studied the antioxidant effect of Pearl nacre. They found after 30 days of mice taking a Pearl nacre solution, the SOD activity of the mice increased and their lipid peroxidation (LPO) decreased. (11)

Peroxidized lips (LPO) are fats that have been attacked and damaged by free radicals. The more peroxided lipids in your body, the unhealthier you are. Free radicals are dangerous and highly unstable molecules that wreak havoc on the body causing rapid damage and degradation to tissues and cells. Antioxidants like SOD are important to help prevent peroxidation, slow down rapid ageing of the skin, support vital organs and preserve youth.

The potential life-extending properties of Pearl could be attributed to many of its longevity-promoting benefits, but its ability to stimulate the production of various antioxidants provides a strong connection. (12-15)

Pearl Powder Nourishes and Enhances Healthy Skin and Glow

Pearl Powder Enhances Healthy Skin and Glow

The most notable benefit of Pearl powder is its extraordinary ability to promote more healthy, radiant and younger looking skin. It has been used to beautify the hair, skin and nails by cultures for millennia.

Empress Wu Ze Tian (625 AD - 705 AD) ruled during the Zhou dynasty in China from 690 AD up until her death. At the age of 65 when she took the throne, it was said that she had the appearance and radiance of a very young woman and lived thirty years longer than the contemporaneous population. Her secret to maintaining healthy youthful-looking skin was using Pearl powder every day, both internally and externally.

Empress Ci Xi, the last ruler of China’s Qing dynasty was a big proponent for the regular use of Pearl. She was another ruler that had “the skin of a young girl”, even in her late sixties according to her memoir written by her personal assistant. She consumed one silver spoon of Pearl in the evening before bed for most of her adult life.

Empress Ci Xi Wears a Pearl Cape
Empress Ci Xi, in her late sixties, wears a Pearl
cape made from 3,500 natural pearls!


According to the ancient Chinese text, “Ben Can Gang Mu” by Shizhen Li (1518-1593), Pearl can stimulate new skin growth, accelerate and improve healing and enhance detoxification.

As we age, the body’s production of collagen and fibroblasts––two of the most important components of a healthy dermis––slows down and loses its ability to regenerate quickly. Pearl has shown in studies to increase the wound healing of fibroblasts, the cells that help build collagen. (16, 17)

By age 25, collagen levels start declining at the rate of 1.5 per cent per year. By age 40, the production of collagen in the body stops altogether.

Collagen is the main structural protein that supports our skin cells and fibroblasts build the connecting fibres that hold the skin together. Both are responsible for the firm, bright, healthy-looking skin that we associate with youth. Regular use of Pearl powder can turn back the clock and help skin look much younger beyond our years. (18)

Pearl powder can help prevent the development of melanin, which causes freckles and dark patches on the skin. It can also help the skin avoid looking old, wrinkled, and sagging. This is due to Pearl’s stimulation SOD activity and other important nutrients. Pearl also helps the skin to maintain hydration and has a strong moisturising effect. (19)

Pearl is equally beneficial for the skin when applied externally as it is when taken internally.

Using Peal powder topically may help eliminate impurities on the skin such as blemishes, coloured spots, pimples, cysts, boils, age spots, sun spots, acne, and scars. Regular use assures that your skin will age much more slowly and will not be easily harmed by time or harsh elements from the environment.

Pearl powder is also the ultimate exfoliator. Other chemical micro-dermabrasion creams are too harsh and toxic for the skin. With overuse, they can leave the skin dry, red, irritated and more vulnerable to sun damage. Pearl powder helps to remove dead skin naturally and won’t cause inflammation. Pearl slows down the ageing of the skin, stimulates the production of collagen and promotes restoration of the skin.

Try exfoliating your skin with Pearl powder once or twice per week to maintain a healthy glow year round.

Pearl Powder Supports Teeth, Joints, Bone Health and Bone Regeneration

Pearl Powder Supports Teeth, Bone Health and Bone Regeneration

Pearl is one of the well-known tonic herbs in Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) for supporting various skin and bone conditions due to its high mineral content and unique proteins.

One of Pearl powders greatest benefits for supporting bone health is its massive stores of natural, bioavailable calcium. In a human clinical trial, researchers compared the bioavailability of the calcium from Pearl powder to other conventional calcium carbonate supplements (the most common form of calcium in dietary supplements) and found that Pearl powder was double the efficiency and absorption rate.

The study concluded that "pearl powder is a beneficial source of calcium for adults..."

Scientific tests have revealed that the calcium and essential trace minerals in Pearl have a natural, highly aligned crystalline structure that is extremely biocompatible with the human body and helps to stimulate new bone growth, enhance mineralization and increase bone density. (20-21)

In 1992, scientists at the Museum D’Histoire Naturelle in Paris, France studied Pearl nacre–a special substance that is the exact material that comprises Pearl– and found that it contained osteogenic properties and could promote the regeneration of osteoblasts, stem cells that are responsible for new bone reformation and regrowth. (21)

In the study, Pearl nacre chips were placed on a layer of human osteoblasts. They found that the osteoblasts that were near the pearl nacre chips proliferated, and then attached themselves to the chips. Even more amazing, the osteoblasts formed a complete sequence of bone in the presence of the pearl nacre. How do we know it was the pearl nacre that caused this? Only the osteoblasts surrounding the pearl nacre chips induced this type of mineralization. (22-24)

In 2003, the same group of French scientists decided to investigate pearl fillings. They placed pieces of pearl nacre in experimental cavities in the lumbar vertebrae of sheep. They found that the insertion of this pearl nacre induced the production of layers of newly formed bone adjacent to the implanted pearl nacre filling. They also discovered that inserting the pearl nacre caused increased mineralization of the sheep’s bone, which means that the bone surrounding the cavity actually became stronger. (25, 26)

Archaeologists in the Mayan ruins also discovered 2,000-year-old human teeth with a Pearl filling. More fascinating was that the pearl filling actually grew and fused together with human teeth and formed a smooth and perfect cavity-free tooth structure. Could this confirm Pearl to be an ideal tooth filler, bone builder and bone substitute? (22, 27)

Pearl Powder Promotes Calmness, Relaxation, Reduces Lowers Stress and Deep Sleep

Pearl Powder Promotes Calmness, Relaxation and Deep Sleep

Pearl powder is well known for its calming and relaxing properties.

In Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM), Pearl has been used for thousands of years for calming the nervous system, relieving stress, elevating mood, and promoting peaceful energy and deep sleep.

Pearl is an adaptogen. Its dual-directional activity works to stabilise and balance the body by providing energy throughout the day and promoting sleep and calmness at night.

A study with rabbits testing the effects of Pearl powder on the nervous system found that Pearl could relieve pain, calm the nervous system, and increase the brain production of positive mood-elevating neurotransmitters. (28)

Its well thought that the highly absorbable form of calcium in Pearl is responsible for its calming effects, which has proven to be true, but another study also showed that Pearl could down-regulate the expression of 5-HT (serotonin blocker) and up-regulate the level of GABA activity in the brain and body. (29)

GABA (Gamma-Aminobutyric Acid) is a calming neurotransmitter that blocks impulses between nerve cells in the brain. Low levels of GABA have been linked to people with anxiety, mood disorders, chronic stress and pain. High levels of GABA has shown to improve mood, reduce stress and anxiety, and promote better sleep.

Pearl has also shown positive effects against insomnia. Pearl is “cold” in nature and its action against insomnia is through reducing excess "liver heat” which is another reason why Pearl helps to calm the mind and central nervous system.

Promoting deep sleep also enhances the restorative beauty processes that occur during the sleep period.

Pearl Powder is One of the Greatest Shen Tonics

In Taoism, Pearl is renowned as a superior Shen tonic, among the best, alongside Reishi mushroom and Schizandra berry.

Shen is our "spirit" or can also be translated as “higher consciousness.” It’s considered the third and most important treasure in the three treasure tonic system (Jing, Chi, and Shen) in Taoism and TCM because it represents our higher nature as human beings.

The energy of Shen is the connection with our higher selves and how we represent and carry ourselves in the world.

The Shen aspects of Pearl can manifest in a person as calmness, balanced energy and emotional stability. Long term use can lead to feelings of greater inner peace and tranquillity. Pearl powder is known to effectively stabilise Shen, elevate mood, enhance meditation and uplift the spirit. (28)

For these reasons, Pearl has a long history of use in ancient China by Taoist monks, sages and other seekers pursuing greater spiritual awareness and enlightenment.

Pearl Powder Support and Benefits The Heart and Cardiovascular System Lowers Blood Pressure

Pearl Powder Benefits the Heart

In TCM, Pearl powder is known to enter the Heart meridian. Its to soothe and calm the nervous system really helps to relieve uneasiness of the heart.

Science is now confirming the benefits of Pearl for cardiovascular health as well.

Shanghai Medical University studied pearl’s pharmacology and its effect on heart function. They found that pearl powder can enhance the heart’s contraction without affecting the frequency of heartbeat, which means more oxygen-rich blood is pumped per beat through the circulatory system without increasing numbers of beats. This translates that the heart is working smarter and more efficiently; not harder. (30)

Blood lipid research indicates that Pearl powder, when taken internally, can reduce lipid peroxide and cholesterol levels of coronary disease patients.

Zhejiang Medical School conducted a double-blind, placebo-controlled human clinical trial to study the effect of pearl powder on lipid peroxides and cholesterol content of coronary disease patients. Twenty patients took Pearl powder for a month and seventeen patients took a placebo. The researchers found that for the patients taking Pearl powder, their harmful lipid peroxide and total cholesterol levels were significantly reduced, while for patients taking the placebo, there was not much change on average. The researchers surmised that Pearl powder can help stop the formation process of atherosclerosis, before it can clogs arteries, so it never becomes a stress on the cardiovascular system. (31)

In China, a number of human clinical trials studied the effect of pearl powder on high blood pressure. In one of the studies, 90 patients took 500 milligrams of Pearl powder twice per day for 30 days. The average systolic pressure dropped from 161.0 mmHg to 139.2 mmHg – a decline of 15 per cent. The average diastolic pressure dropped from 96.0 mmHg to 84.6 mmHg – a decline of 13 per cent. (32-34)

Pearl Powder Supports and repairs Liver Health clears toxic heat tcm

Pearl Powder Supports the Liver

In TCM, Pearl is known to enter and support the liver meridian.

Pearl can improve the health of the liver due to its rich stores of bioavailable calcium and other compounds. Being “cold” in nature, according to TCM, Pearl helps reduce heat in the body, and in particular, clears the liver of toxic heat. The liver is damaged by excessive heat and therefore, prefers to remain cool.

In TCM theory, the liver is regarded as the seat of all emotions and happiness. It’s largely responsible for our moods and is associated with anger, rage, and depression. The manifestations of these negative emotions tend to point to an imbalance in liver energy.

The liver also controls the peripheral nervous system. With its ability to cool the liver, Pearl calms the nervous system which helps to keep us grounded and happy with a more positive attitude and outlook on life.

In TCM, the liver rules the quality of the skin. Red blotches or patches on the skin is often a sign of excess heat in the liver, and Pearl cools and calms the liver to help reduce skin redness and irritation.

Pearl Powder Supports Eye Health brightens eyes

Pearl Powder Supports Eye Health

In TCM, Pearl is known to brighten the eyes and help remove “cloudiness."

Taking care of our eyes is becoming increasingly more important in our modern digital world. For most of us, many hours per day, our eyes are glued to screens–computers, smartphones, television, tablets–and these devices all emit artificial light and other harmful frequencies that can gradually degrade our eyesight, disrupt hormones and other biological functions in the body such as brain health.

Over the past five decades, we’ve seen a steep rise in eye conditions such as myopia, particularly in East Asian countries. By the end of this decade, some estimate that one-third of the world's population–2.5 billion people–could be affected by short-sightedness. “We are going down the path of having a myopia epidemic,” says Professor Padmaja Sankaridurg, head of the myopia programme at the Brien Holden Vision Institute in Sydney, Australia.

The modern rise in myopia can largely be attributed to the increase of engagement with computer and smartphone screens among other factors. (35)

The modern conveniences of these devices won’t disappear or change anytime soon. We have grown to love and enjoy these conveniences without knowing or being aware of the potential health risks that are now coming to light.

So, if we choose to use with these devices on a regular basis, then we should consider taking extra care of our eye health. Pearl powder can be very helpful in this regard.

For a long time, Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) doctors have been using Pearl to enhance their patients' eyesight and treat eye diseases such as myopia. In a 2001 study, Xu H. and colleagues from the Department of Chemistry of Huazhong University of Science and Technology scientifically validated that nacre–a protein compound inside Pearl–can help prevent and treat chickens with myopia. (36)

Pearl Powder Improves Intelligence and Makes you Smarter

Pearl Powder Improves Intelligence

One of the greatest benefits of Pearl powder is the ability to positively affect the brain and mind and even increase intelligence.

In one study, Chinese scientists found that Pearl can actually increase children’s IQ. In the study, researchers gave 750-1500 mg of Pearl powder every day to more than 200 children with mental disabilities. After three months, the IQ of 92% of the children improved by more than 80%, which enhanced their IQs into the normal range. (37)

Two more studies in China found after giving a group of mice Pearl powder in their meals, 1% for 14 days, they performed much better on their maze tests and had stronger immunity than the group that did not supplement with Pearl. The studies indicated that Pearl powder can boost the immune system, and improve memory and learning ability in mice, in other words, it made them smarter and healthier. (38, 39)

How To Choose High Quality Pearl Powder

Historically, natural Pearls were very difficult to grind down fine enough to make all the nutrients bioavailable. Pearls must undergo a form of processing to unlock the powerful nutrients insides these precious gems.

Recent advancements in grinding technology known as “levigation”, now allow the Pearl to be ground down very close to nano-size. This technique produces highly absorbable Pearl powder and allows all the nutrients to be fully utilised by the body once it enters the bloodstream.

Teelixir Pearl is 100% super micro-ground using this modern technology known as “levigation” for optimum bioavailability.

The levigation process works with the following procedures:

  • High-grade, ethically sourced freshwater Pearl (from mussels) is ground in water using a circular motion.
  • Fine powder will become suspended in water.
  • The water is removed, thus separating the suspended powder from non-suspended heavier powder.
  • More water is added and the grinding continues until all pearl powder is “extracted” (goes into suspension).
  • This will also separate the centre impurity (the “seed” that starts the pearl) from actual pearl powder.
  • The solution with “extracted” pearl in suspension is left to settle so the pearl will deposit to the bottom.
  • The deposited pearl is then dried. This “levigated” Pearl powder is almost nano-sized and is thus very easy for the human body to absorb.

It’s worth noting that natural or wild Pearls are very expensive fetching between $100 to $1000 per ounce in most Chinese herbal stores. Therefore, almost all nutritional supplements using Pearl powder on the market use non-jewel grade Pearls, since the use of all natural Pearls would be far too expensive and economically unviable for the consumers.

The solubility rate of levigated or hydrolysed Pearl powder is 98 per cent, and of this, studies have demonstrated that up to 95 percent of this is absorbed into the bloodstream. This high absorbability rate is up to two times the bioavailability of the finest-ground natural Pearl. This renders the sustainably farmed Pearl powder (fresh or saltwater) equal or in some cases, more superior than the natural Pearls at the premium price.

 

Dosage and Side Effects of Pearl Powder

Teelixir suggests starting with 1/4 tsp of Pearl powder up to three times per day.

If you are sensitive to herbs, you may want to start with less. When your body feels ready, you can increase your dosage according to your daily needs. This extract is not heat sensitive. Pearl is very safe and gentle, it's non-toxic and has no known side effects.

How To Use Pearl Powder

Here are a few ways you can use Pearl powder in your everyday routine to enjoy great skin and longevity health benefits:

Nutritive Superfood

The flavour profile of a concentrated extract of Pearl is very mild, slightly sweet and salty. This makes it easy to add to your teas, coffee, smoothies, salad dressings, or your favourite dessert recipes. You can make Pearl tea by simply adding 1/4 tsp to a mug and mixing it with hot water. You can also add Pearl with other tonic herbs, adaptogens, and superfood mushrooms to create a potent life-promoting elixir. Try these recipes below:

Pearl Beauty Pancakes with Very Berry Schizandra Compote Recipe

Mineral Face Mask

Pearl powder can be used as the main ingredient for a mineral face mask to achieve that glowing skin we all so desperately want. Pearl naturally brightens the skin and helps to shrink your pores as well as diminish redness and lower inflammation. Not to mention, it’s effectiveness in lightening age spots and evening out your skin tone. Pearl can work wonders if you have acne scars or damaged skin. The list of topical benefits goes on and on.

Check out our easy how-to Pearl Brightening Mineral Mask Recipe to get the glowing skin you deserve.

Pearl Powder Brightening Mineral Face Mask (3 Easy Ingredients)

Mineral Finishing Powder

Say goodbye to those toxic, overpriced “luxury” translucent setting powders and say hello to the kind of REAL luxury your skin deserves.

Pearl powder is considered “mineral makeup” because of its high mineral and amino acids content. As a powder, it also acts as an exfoliating agent. Suitable to use on all skin tone colours. Try applying it at night to soothe skin while you sleep and help absorb excess oil during the night.

Follow our easy 3 step guide to setting your makeup using Pearl powder:

Step 1: Pour 1/4 tsp (or less) of Pearl powder into a small bowl or plate.
Step 2: Dip your makeup brush into the powder and gently tap off excess powder from the brush.
Step 3: Gently dust your face with Pearl powder (concentrating on your T-Zone area). Repeat whenever necessary.

Pearl Mineral Makeup Finishing Setting Powder


Buy Pearl Powder*

* Pearl 10:1 Extract Powder. 100% Super micro-ground "levigated" pure freshwater Pearl powder for optimum bio-availability. Ethically sourced, sustainably grown and harvested.

 



References and Studies

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  2. Tsukamoto D, Sarashina I, Endo K., "Structure and expression of an unusually acidic matrix protein of pearl oyster shells," Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2004 Aug 6;320(4):1175-80.
  3. Chen, H., Chang, J., Wu, J. (2008). Calcium Bioavailability of Nanonized Pearl Powder for Adults. Journal of Food Science, 73(9).
  4. Hui-Fang Chiu, Su-Chun Hsiao, Yan-Ying Lu, Yi-Chun Han, You-Cheng Shen, Kamesh Venkatakrishnan, Chin-Kun Wang Efficacy of protein rich pearl powder on antioxidant status in a randomized placebo-controlled trial. Journal of Food and Drug Analysis January 2018 Volume 26, Issue 1, Pages 309–317
  5. Chen, H. et al. (2005). Chemical modification studies on alkaline phosphatase from pearl oyster (Pinctada fucata): a substrate reaction course analysis and involvement of essential arginine and lysine residues at the active site. The International Journal of Biochemistry Cell Biology, 37(7), 1446-1457.
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  24. Atlan G, Delattre O, Berland S, LeFaou A, Nabias G, Cot D, Lopez E. “Interface between bone and pearl implants in sheep.” Biomaterials. 1999 Jun;20(11):1017-22.
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